aefenglommung (aefenglommung) wrote,

More Church History notes

With this outline for the last three sessions, my history notes should be complete. I may have to do some more thinking, however, since these notes seem skimpier than my earlier outlines.

I wanted to end this nine-week session with the Schism of 1054, which I believe really separates one era of the Church from another; however, I ran out of material, so I guess I'll go ahead and go up through the First Crusade. These notes will thus end w/1099.

I haven't put Anselm or Abelard in here anywhere, since they both died in the 1100s -- maybe I should put Anselm here. Anyway, if people like this whole series, I might do the Second Millennium of the Church next Spring.

Your comments on this last period would be greatly appreciated. What am I missing?

The Extent of Christendom: Seventh Session

I. The Fury of the Northmen
A. Vikings attack Lindisfarne 750

B. Great explorers
1. Iceland 846

2. Greenland

3. America

C. Northern France attacked throughout 840s - 870s
1. Duke Rollo founds Normandy 866

2. Norman Robert Guiscard invades S. Italy 1053 (& later, Sicily)

D. Russia emerges by 850
1. Kiev dominant Rus state

2. 866 Rus attack Constantinople

II. Controversies of the Ninth Century
A. Jews, Muslims, and Xtns in Spain (800s & 900s)
1. The letters of Bodo & Pedro Alvaro

2. Muslim intrigue helps put Sancho the Fat on the throne of Leon

3. Muslim decline begins (900s, 1000s)

B. The new eucharistic doctrine
1. Paschasius Radbertus 831 & transubstantiation

2. "How many angels can dance on the head of a pin?"

C. The Photian schism 867
1. Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, publishes articles v. the W. 867

2. Emperor dies, Photius deposed, peace between E. & W. patched up

Eighth Session

III. The Church in Feudal Europe
A. After Charlemagne (d. 814)
1. Division into what became France & Germany

2. John Scotus Erigena (d. 877), theologian under Charles the Bold

B. Missions to the Northmen
1. Anskar d. 865

2. Alfred defeats & baptizes Danes 879

C. Cluny founded 910, begins reform movement

D. Education
1. Monasteries as source of education
a. Literacy
* placing youth in monasteries to acquire education
* use of churchmen in government
b. Copying books
* invention of new letters
* preserving the past
* translations from Arabic
* Pope Stephen & Arabic numerals
* The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

2. Bishop's Household
a. ministerial training
b. Precursor of universities

3. Alfred's promotion of the vernacular

E. Parochialization
1. Preaching in market squares, at Crosses

2. Founding new churches (& monasteries)
a. beginnings of the lay investiture controversy
b. Funding from land
* glebe
* tithe

3. Infant baptism becomes more common
a. Xtny no longer a sect, now begins to see itself as "Christendom," co-extensive with the nation
b. Running out of pagans to evangelize

F. "Truce of God" (early 1000s)

IV. The Expansion of the Orthodox
A. Byzantines fight Bulgars and Pechenegs (800s, 900s)

B. Venice founded as a slaving port between E. & W.

C. Cyril (d. 869) & Methodius (d. 895) evangelize the Slavs

D. Byzantium & the Northmen
1. The Varangian Guard

2. St. Vladimir forcibly converts the Rus 988

3. St. Olaf forcibly converts the Norse 994

Ninth Session

V. Christianity reaches its maximum extent
A. Conversion of Iceland 1000 – end of mass conversions

B. The Schism of 1054
1. Patriarch of Constantinople drops Pope's name from diptychs

2. Pope's representatives lay bull of excommunication on altar

C. The Turkish victory at Manzikert 1071
*Byzantine Emperor captured and his army slaughtered

D. Summary of the one, undivided Church
1. What has been lost
a. Visible unity
* Pope & other Patriarchs somehow managed to stay united, despite differences
* toleration of different liturgical traditions
b. Theological agreement
* despite filioque
* despite differences over eucharistic doctrine
* no arguments over baptism as yet

2. The legacy of the First Millennium
a. Worship
* Gelasian Sacramentary –> BCP
* Lectionaries & Psalter
* Gregorian Chant
* Sarum Mass
* Liturgical Year
* Vestments
b. Theology
* Creeds & Definitions
* Augustine: Predestination vs. Free Will; nature of Grace
c. Congregational Life (parish churches)
d. Xtn Literature
* Dream of the Rood
* Piers Plowman
e. Intellectual Life
* Model of the Universe

3. How the Dark Ages are like our era
a. The collapse of an older consensus
b. The need to conserve what is essential, adapt to new conditions

VI. The Dawn of a New Age
A. Expansion of Papal Power
1. The Norman Conquest 1066

2. Gregory VII demands celibacy 1074

3. Gregory humbles Henry IV
a. Excommunicates Henry 1076
b. Kneeling in the snow: Canossa 1077

B. The First Crusade
1. Purpose of the Crusade
a. Peter the Hermit and Pope Urban II
* free access to the holy places
b. The appeal of Emperor Alexius Comnenus
* assistance to sister Xtns in the Empire

2. Urban preaches to the nobility of Europe at Clermont 1095
a. "Deus le volt!"
b. Ideology of the Crusades
* Freeing Jerusalem from profane hands
* taking the cross = remittance of sins (idea adopted from Muslim jihad)

3. The First Crusade
a. Leaders
* Godfrey of Bouillon
* Hugh of Vermandois (brother of Philip I)
* Raymond, Count of Toulouse
* Bohemond and Tancred (son and nephew of Robert Guiscard)
* Swear an oath of allegiance to the Emperor
b. Jerusalem falls 1099
* 40,000 non-Xtns slaughtered
* Establishment of Crusader kingdoms ("Outremer")

Edited, expanded 10/27/05

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