aefenglommung (aefenglommung) wrote,

Still more Church History notes for this week's session (and next's)

Session Five

III. The Barbarians and the Empire
A. Christianization of the Roman Empire
1. Intense evangelization and spread of Xtny

2. Increasing identification of "Roman" and "Xtn"

B. The Voelkerwanderung ("movement of peoples")
1. Origins in Central Asia

2. Desire of Germanic tribes (& others) to be part of the Empire
a. Social advantages
b. Openness to Xtny

3. Attitude of the Empire toward the Germans
a. Admit what couldn't be stopped
b. Use federated tribes against alien tribes
*Roman armies change equipment & tactics as Germans become backbone of forces
c. Opposition toward Arianism

C. The Collapse of the West
1. The Goths
a. Two peoples
* Ostrogoths ("East-goths")
* Visigoths ("West-goths")
b. Battle of Adrianople (378)
c. The Goths turn West
*Sack of Rome under Alaric (410)
*Visigoths invade Iberia ("Spain") after Alaric's death
*Ostrogoths invade Italy
*Vandal allies invade N. Africa
* origin of "vandal, vandalize"

2. The Huns
a. Attila ("Scourge of God")
* invaded Persia 441
* invaded Eastern Empire
* turned West
b. The business with Honoria
c. Aetius (Master of Soldiers)
* allies with Theodoric & Thorismund, kings of the Visigoths
d. Battle of Chalons-sur-Marne (451)
e. Pope Leo I turns back Attila from Rome (452)
e. End of Attila's reign (d. 453)

3. Other Germanic tribes dismember the Western Empire, become source of the nations of modern Europe
a. Suebi –> Swabia
b. Burgundians –> Burgundy
c. Lombards ("Longbeards") –> Lombardy
d. Franks –> France
e. Angles (& Saxons, Jutes, Frisians) –> England ("Angle-land")

4. The End of the Western Empire
a. Odoacer & Romulus Augustulus
*end of the Empire 476
b. Boethius (480-5224 or 525)
* executed for treason by Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths
*The Consolation of Philosophy
c. Justinian (reigned 527-565) renews the Empire
* attempts to recover the West, w/mixed success
* Hagia Sophia
* Code of Justinian ("civil law")
d. From this time on, we refer to the Eastern half of the Roman Empire as the Byzantine Empire, though they called themselves "Roman" for another thousand years.
e. Legacies of the Roman Empire to the Church
* Administrative structure
* Latin
* Vestments (leftover Roman dress)
* architecture
* music, vocal & instrumental

IV. The Challenge of Orthodoxy
A. The Problem of Christ's Humanity
1. Adoptionism

2. Docetism

B. The Council of Chalcedon (425)
1. The Chalcedonian Definition of the Faith
* two natures in one person

2. The Tome of Leo and the question of the Pope's authority

C. The 2nd Council of Constantinople
1. II Constantinople (553)
a. called by Justinian in an attempt to mollify the Monophysites
b. Defined the "hypostatic union" of the two natures of Xt

D. Problems with Chalcedonian Orthodoxy
1. Monophysitism
a. Single, "fused" nature of Xt
b. Non-Chalcedonian Patriarchates split off
* Copts, Armenians, others

2. The Filioque ("and the son")
a. Conversion of the Arian tribes
* the Visigoths
b. Synod of Toledo (587)
* safeguarding the deity of the Son
c. Cause of much consternation (still is)

3. Fullest statement of (Western) Orthodoxy: the Athanasian Creed

Session Six

V. Alternates to Orthodox Christianity
A. Judaism

B. Mithraism

C. Non-Chalcedonian Churches
1. The 3rd Council of Constantinople (680-81)
a. condemned Monothelitism
b. Pope Agatho had great influence on this Council

2. Further attempts to reconcile Monophysites w/Chalcedon failed
* cut off by Islam

D. The Rise of Islam
1. Muhammad founds Islam (610)

2. Muhammad unites Arabia under Islam
* Hejira (622) to Medina
* return to Mecca
* dies 632

3. The changing attitude of Islam toward Xtny and Judaism

4. The advance of Islam
* Arabia (by 634)
* Iraq & Palestine
-- August 20, 636: 50,000 Romans killed in 1 battle
* Egypt
* North Africa
* Iberia
* Baghdad founded (762) by Caliph Al-Mansur

VI. The Church gets its act together
A. Pelagianism rejected at Council of Orange (529)

B. The Rule of St. Benedict energizes the West
1. St. Benedict of Nursia (480-543)
* Monte Cassino founded (529)

2. Reform of Western monasticism

3. Rule emphasizes work and prayer, not austerities

4. Monasticism now open to women
* noble women rise to authority in convents, including co-ed ones

C. The Evangelization of Western Europe
1. Baptism of Clovis (496), King of the Franks

2. Pope Gregory the Great (540-604, pope from 590)
a. Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons
* Gregory & the English boys in the slave market
b. Direction of Missions
* working a plan
* central administration
* incorporating local customs
c. Curia Pastoralis

3. Indigenous missions
a. Irish missions to W. Europe (500s)
* Controversies in Britain between Celtic & Roman
* Synod of Whitby (664)
b. English missions to the Continent (600s-700s)
* Willibrord to Frisia
* Winfrid (Boniface) to Germany

3. The Franks and Charlemagne
a. Charles the Great becomes king of the Franks 771
b. Beginning of forced conversions in wars with Saxons
c. renewal of the imperial dignity ("Holy Roman Empire")
* crowned by Pope 800

4. New features of Western missions
* founding new bishoprics, new parishes
* baptism – 8-sided baptistries
– mass baptisms
– white baptismal gowns

D. Islam is halted
1. In the East: Arabs give up trying to take Constantinople (718)

2. In the West: Charles Martel (688-741) wins Battle of Tours (732)

3. Internal dissension
a. Shiites split off from Sunnis
* Umayyad Dynasty 661-750
* Shiites insist Caliph must be Fatimid
b. Abbasids come to power 751
* Spain rejects
* Morocco breaks w/Baghdad 788

E. The Iconoclastic Controversy and the 2nd Council of Nicea (787)
1. Emperor Leo III outlaws icons as idolatry in 725

2. Council upholds use of icons (end of iconoclasm in 843)
* victory of iconodoules

3. Last of the Seven Ecumenical Councils recognized by both E. & W.

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