aefenglommung (aefenglommung) wrote,

More Church History outlines

We are coming up on Session Four, wherein I've got to try to cram the whole Arian Controversy and its aftermath into one class. I'm not sure it can be done -- might have to slop over into next week. Anyway, here is tomorrow night's outline; still working on Sessions Five and Six.

Thinking that I might write all this up as An Introduction to the History of Christianity someday. Meanwhile, the lesson plan --

The Definition of Christ: Session Four

I. The Arian Controversy

A. The Problem of Christ's Divinity
1. Tritheism obviously not an option

2. Modalism: one God in different phases
* Patripassionism

3. A desire to preserve the headship of the Father
B. The Council of Nicea (325)
1. Arius & his followers
a. Teaching
* The Logos and the Wisdom of God
* The Son less than the Fr, more than the rest of creation
* homoiousios
b. Character and tactics

2. The opponents of Arius
a. Constantine convokes the Council
* Imperial presidency later seen as essential
* Constantine burns the letters of denunciation
b. Athanasius (296-373) & the East
* Full deity of the son: homoousios
* Deification of Man
c. Hosius of Cordoba & the West
d. Nicholas of Myra (d. 346) – a minor player

3. Results of the Council
a. Heretics deprived, excommunicated, and banished
b. The first draft of the Nicene Creed
c. Date of Easter
C. The Aftermath of Nicea
1. Constantine enforced orthodoxy (d. 337)
* Church and State begin to influence each other

2. Constantine's successors favored other options
a. Constans and Constantius favor Arianism
b. Julian reverts to paganism (361)
D. The Council of Constantinople (380-381)
1. The Cappadocian Fathers lead the fight for orthodoxy
a. Basil of Caesarea (330-379)
b. Gregory of Nazianzus (d. 389-90)
* leading figure at Council
c. Gregory of Nyssa, bro. of Basil (335-394)

2. Council of Constantinople
a. Condemns Arianism, reaffirms the divinity of Xt
b. Condemns Macedonianism (HS = creature), thus affirming the Holy Spirit as co-equally God; new formulation for Trinity = 3 hypostases in 1 ousia
c. Condemns Apollinarianism (Jesus has no soul)
d. 3rd Canon declares that the Bp of Constantinople shall have precedence after the Bp of Rome, since C = "New Rome"
* Upsets Rome and Alexandria
* Full Patriarchal system = Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem

II. New Forms of Ministry

A. Monasticism
1. "White martyrdom" and political agitation

2. Pachomius (290-346)

3. Anthony (251-356)

4. St. Simeon Stylites (390-459)

5. Martin of Tours (316-397)
*former Roman military officer
B. Missions
1. Ulfilas, Arian missionary to the Goths

2. Armenia, first Xtn nation

3. The Copts

4. Patrick (b. 387-390, d. 461-464) & the Irish

5. The decline of paganism
a. Anti-idolatry campaign of the Church
b. Theodosius outlaws pagan ritual, Olympics, etc. (392)
C. Music and the Christian Mind
1. Ambrose of Milan (340-397)
a. "Let Ambrose be bishop"
b. Church above Emperor
c. Mentor of Augustine
d. First man known to read silently
e. Father of church music

2. Augustine (354-430)
a. Disappointment to his mother, Monica
b. Manichee
c. "Lord, make me chaste – but not yet"
d. Philosopher, Teacher of Rhetoric
e. "Tolle, lege"
f. 391 "forcibly" ordained presbyter; bishop of Hippo 396
g. 411 City of God
h. Confessions

3. Jerome (347-419)
* Vulgate

4. John Chrysostom (347-407)

5. Church life in the late empire
a. Adoption of the basilica as the basic form of church building
*Old St. Peter's, Rome built by Constantine
b. Development of written liturgies
c. Church music
d. Liturgical seasons
* Lent
* Advent
e. Pilgrimage
* St. Helena and the search for the True Cross

D. Popular Devotion and the Council of Ephesus (410)
1. Cyril of Alexandria vs. Nestorius of Constantinople
a. theotokos
b. Dueling Councils

2. Reconciling council called at Ephesus (410)
* Nestorians not all reconciled

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